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Partnerships way ahead for Socpo

Partnerships way ahead for Socpo

first_imgRelated posts:No related photos. Thenew president of local government HR body Socpo outlines her plans to widen thesociety’s membership, develop its relationship with the CIPD and equip HRleaders to get on to the boardLocal government HR body Society of Chief Personnel Officers (Socpo) must”punch its weight” for the sector’s HR profession in themodernisation of public services, said its president-elect. Mary Mallett, who will be unveiled as the institute’s president at itsannual conference in Brighton tomorrow, has ambitious plans for Socpo’s future.Her agenda includes increasing Socpo’s influence through widening thesociety’s membership and opening its first headquarters. She also plans to developstrategic partnerships, work more closely with the Chartered Institute ofPersonnel and Development (CIPD) and help equip HR professionals to sit at thetop table. Mallett, strategic director (organisation and development) at Kent CountyCouncil, believes Socpo can play a central role in modernising public servicesby improving links between local and central government. Socpo has been invited to join the Public Sector Employers’ Forum and hashad high-level discussions with the Government’s Public Service Reform AdvisoryUnit. Last week, Personnel Today exclusively revealed that Socpo is to allow civilservice HR professionals to join the society (News, 4 March). “We have so much in common due to the modernisation agenda. We bothdeliver public services that are often very sensitive, such as childprotection, benefits and immigration,” Mallett said. Mallett thinks the similarity between central and local government is one ofthe main reasons for Socpo seeing a number of its senior members cross over tothe civil service in recent years – including its departing president FrancescaOkosi, director of organisation change at government environmental agencyDefra. Socpo is entering into strategic partnership with local government chiefexecutive body the Society of Local Authority Chief Executives (Solace) and istaking part in two joint conferences in June on organisational development. Mallett believes chief executives have woken up to the importance of HR indelivering quality services. She says now is the perfect time to cementrelations between the two bodies, as her boss at Kent County Council – MikePitt – is president of Solace. Pitt is to address this week’s Socpo conference on HR’s role in localgovernment. “Chief executives have really twigged that good leadership and HR iswhat really gets them the gong. Solace invited us along to a Downing Streetmeeting about public sector reform and have done some very good research onwhat it is like to be a chief executive at a local authority.” Socpo and local government IT group the Society of IT Managers (SOCITM) aregoing to form closer ties. Mallett said: “Self-service HR is huge, and we [HR professionals] endup having to create it, invent it and deal with the people issues, while SOCITMhas the product knowledge. We would be daft not to see the benefits.” She said Socpo is in talks with other public sector bodies over tentativeplans to share headquarters and administration. Socpo has never had a headquarters, but Mallett believes it must have abase, as its membership is increasing from the current 600. Socpo is also set to merge with its Scottish equivalent, the Society ofPersonnel Directors in Scotland. Its president, Hogan Burke, is this year’sconference special guest – and Socpo has opened up membership from senior HRprofessionals to all personnel officers in the sector. Additionally, in 2002,Personnel Today revealed that Socpo and the Association of Healthcare HumanResource Management (AHHRM) are to revive their partnership by incorporatingthe Association of Directors in Social Service. Socpo is to make the most of these partnerships by introducing an”active fringe” at next year’s annual conference, which will includesenior professionals from local government, education, social services and IT. Improved relations with the CIPD are also central to Mallett’s presidency.When Socpo announced its tie up with AHHRM two years ago, it cited a lack ofsupport from the CIPD as a major factor. Mallett has set about changing that, and has held high-level discussionswith the CIPD’s assistant director-general, Duncan Brown. Socpo has persuaded the CIPD to incorporate a public sector perspective inits work and invited the CIPD to a Cabinet Office public service reformmeeting. The two bodies are planning joint research projects and Brown is toaddress this year’s Socpo conference. “The tendency of the CIPD has been to operate with the private sector,but I think Brown has realised that the public sector and local government aregaps in its work: around a fifth – 20,000 – of its members are in the publicsector,” she said. Mallett is in the process of producing a best practice HR database centredon the recent Comprehensive Performance Assessment – which ranked councils’services and employer standards. A group of 18 HR directors from excellent andweak councils has been formed to share experiences, and a report will bepublished in April. Mallett is also demanding that HR in local government becomes morebusiness-focused. She thinks improved performance management would increase theopportunity for HR to sit on a company’s main board. She believes HR must be at the forefront of driving a culture of performancemanagement in the delivery of local government services. “I still think that you will find happy little HR teams doinginductions, recruitment and training when an authority’s real problem might beeducation. It would be better putting everything into education to sort thatout,” she said. “A lot of personnel people are not focused, they do not have anall-hands-on-deck mentality. The best do, but most totter around in thebackground doing what they have always done.” Mallett believes a service-focused HR profession deserves its place on theboard. She explained: “Board-level HR is being bunched with IT, finance andother areas to create these corporate resource jobs. I want HR to storm in andget those roles. Where the organisation is brave enough to have an HR directoron the board, I want to make sure they can handle the business.” By Paul Nelsonwww.socpo.org.ukMallett’s CV2003 Socpo president1999 Strategic director (organisation and development) at KentCounty Council1995 Director of personnel and organisation at BirminghamCouncil1993 County personnel director at Hereford and Worcester CountyCouncil1989 Head of personnel and administration (education) atHereford and Worcester County Council1987 Senior personnel officer at the BBC (news and currentaffairs)1985 Personnel officer (programmes) at the BBC Comments are closed. Partnerships way ahead for SocpoOn 11 Mar 2003 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Articlelast_img read more

Oxonian on mission to Antarctica

Oxonian on mission to Antarctica

first_imgA graduate student from Linacre College has been selected to take part in a climate change expedition to Antarctica.Aaron Holdway, originally from Nova Scotia in Canada, will be joining climate change experts, students and corporate leaders from 15 different countries in order to experience the effects of climate change and spread the word about safeguarding the environmentThe International Antarctic Treaty Expedition, set up by explorer Robert Swan, has set out this year for the ninth time. The participants sailed from Ushuaia, Argentina, on Wednesday, and their expedition will span 2 weeks, in which they will be visiting parts of the coast and various islands, in temperatures as low as -15°C.Mr Holdway said of his journey, “It’s a bit clichéd to refer to the experience of a lifetime, but if anything is, it’s this. I mean, seriously: Antarctica?! It feels like I’m going to the moon.”last_img read more

June 18, 2018 Police Blotter

June 18, 2018 Police Blotter

first_imgJune 18, 2018 Police Blotter061818 Decatur County EMS Report061818 Decatur County Fire Report061818 Decatur County Law Report061818 Decatur County Jail Report061818 Batesville Police Blotterlast_img

Expansion clubs Davao, Zamboanga triumph

Expansion clubs Davao, Zamboanga triumph

first_imgView comments MOST READ Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Who, dear brothers, needs a Crawford-Horn rematch? Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding China population now over 1.4 billion as birthrate falls Steam emission over Taal’s main crater ‘steady’ for past 24 hours In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ Juntilla, who briefly played for Barako Bull in the PBA, fired 12 points of his output in the final quarter, combining with Jonathan Parreno to stun the Heroes, who drew 26 points from veteran Denok Miranda.Earlier, the Tigers of Davao Occidental leaned on Billy Robles, Leo Najorda and Mark Yee, to turn back Imus Bandera GLC Truck and Equipment, 75-71.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownPicked up from Rain or Shine in the PBA, Robles, known in the south as the “Ilonggo Superman,” finished with 15 points, nine rebounds and three steals. Yee and Najorda combined for 25 points.But it wasn’t just the Tigers offense which proved to be decisive in the win over the Bandera. Jury of 7 men, 5 women selected for Weinstein rape trialcenter_img Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Newcomers Davao Occidental and Zamboanga got their Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League Datu Cup campaigns off to a positive start after hacking out impressive victories Thursday night at Alonte Sports Complex in Biñan, Laguna.Reed Juntilla summoned his old, fiery form, exploding for 30 points as the Valientes spoiled the home debut of the Laguna Krah Heroes, 86-80.ADVERTISEMENT Dave Chappelle donates P1 million to Taal relief operations Winfrey details her decision to withdraw from Simmons film DepEd’s Taal challenge: 30K students displaced Davao Occidental’s defense on Imus top gun Ian Melencio was a key to the Tigers’ win. The Bandera also didn’t get anything productive from new recruit Andre Paras, who was held scoreless in 12 minutes of action.“I just thought we could have played better,” said Davao head coach Don Dulay. Good thing I have some veterans, who could pull out a game for me. But like I’ve said, we’ve got a lot to work on.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Nextlast_img read more

SA youth awarded for community work

SA youth awarded for community work

first_img21 September 2012 South African youth were honoured for their determination and efforts in improving the lives of those less fortunate at the President’s Award for Youth Empowerment ceremony at the Sefako Makgatho Presidential Guest House in Pretoria on Thursday. The award aims to motivate young people to become involved in a balanced programme of voluntary self-development activities and was first introduced in the United Kingdom in 1956 as The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award. Today, through the network of The International Award Association, it is operated in more than 120 countries – with 21 in Africa. In South Africa, the programme started out as the Gold Shield Award in 1983 and was re-launched as The President’s Award for Youth Empowerment in 1994. It has four sections designed to provide a balanced programme of personal development – service, skills, physical recreation and adventurous journey. In August 2010, at the beginning of the United National’s International Year of Youth, President Jacob Zuma accepted the role of Patron-in-Chief from President Nelson Mandela, who is the Founding Patron-in-Chief of the organisation. Last year, during the Presidential Budget Vote Speech in Parliament, President Zuma called for companies and funding entities to support the valuable work that the Award was doing for young people in South Africa. ‘Nurturing South Africa’s youth’ In congratulating the 60 Gold Award recipients from Gauteng, Limpopo and Kwazulu- Natal, Bapela said: “I challenge you to keep living the award in all you do. Continue working with the less privileged in the way that you have. “Continue learning new skills and challenging yourselves in various ways as you move into the future. Our country needs young people like you to make it happen.” Bapela also announced that the National Youth Development Agency (NYDA) is currently in the process of signing its first Service Level Agreement with the organisers of the President’s award programme, to further support the organisation’s work. “Through this partnership, we hope to create greater access to the award programme, enabling more young people to develop themselves through this exciting international initiative,” he said. “It is not easy, but we need to work hard to develop the positive energy of young people in this country; there is a lot of it and we need to harness it.” An example of positive energy being developed through the programme was award- winner and learner with a disability from Forest Town School in Johannesburg, Emily Mabasa. “I’m not disabled – because disabled means you cannot do anything, I can do anything as long as I’m determined,” she said. “If it was not for this award, I would have not discovered my passion for helping others. Through these awards, I realise that I have knowledge that I can share with others.” Source: SANews.gov.zalast_img read more

Discover small-town South Africa

Discover small-town South Africa

first_imgSouth Africa is known for its gold and diamonds, but if you want to discover its real gems, head for the small towns and villages that lie just off the beaten the track – the country’s heartland.Small towns in South Africa are the country’s hidden gems. (Image: Brand South Africa)Brand South Africa reporterOften a haven for artists and creative people who need peace and quiet to flourish, small towns give travellers the opportunity to meet colourful local characters who still have the time to talk and settings that can take your breath away.Western CapeEastern CapeMpumalangaFree StateNorth WestWESTERN CAPEKnysnaLying on the Garden Route in the Western Cape, the coastal town of Knysna offers incredible vistas of the lagoon and the ocean and a famous forest that shelters elusive elephants.At the Knysna Heads the ocean crashes through a narrow rocky outcrop to feed the waters of the lagoon – a nursery for all manner of sea life, such as the tiny Knysna seahorse. Voted South Africa’s best small town in a recent competition, Knysna is rich in art galleries and offers great coffee shops and restaurants. Then there’s the feast of oysters, both cultivated in the lagoon and harvested in the wild.Knysna’s people are by far its most colourful attraction, ranging from the obviously arty to Rastafarians – a whole settlement – as well as fishermen and the wealthy, who have found their paradise along South Africa’s garden route.Visit the Knysna Tourism websiteFranschhoekIn the heart of the Cape Winelands, Franschoek is a little bit of France in Africa. Settled by French Huguenots who fled religious persecution in the 1700s, it is known for its restaurants, five-star guest-houses and excellent wineries. This area is second to Cape Town as the culinary heart of South Africa. Home-made cheeses, preserves, chocolates, baked goods and breads are on show in all the local shops, and the town has a wealth of art galleries.Visit the Franschhoek Tourism websiteSimonstownSimonstown near Cape Town is founded on naval tradition. From the early days this town functioned as the principal South Atlantic Base for the Royal Navy before it became the home of the South-African navy. Visitors can explore the fascinating Naval Museum, walk the streets to soak up the atmosphere and relax in one of the many ocean-side restaurants and bars following a naval theme. Whales and great white sharks patrol these waters and sightings are common.Visit the Simonstown websiteDarlingThe little town of Darling, lying between the West Coast and the Swartland in the Western Cape, is one of South Africa’s foremost artist colonies. Easily accessible from Cape Town, it first attracted attention from the carpets of wild flowers that blossom in the springtime.Quaint restaurants and coffee shops, a theatre, a number of B&Bs and a myriad of shops have since sprung up in this scenic setting. The town also has a famous ambassador, Mrs Evita Bezuidenhout – otherwise known as South African actor and satirist Pieter-Dirk Uys.Visit the Darling Tourism websiteVisit the Evita se Perron websitePaternosterVisiting the West Coast town of Paternoster, north of Cape Town, is like walking into a living painting, with colourful fishing boats, fishermen’s houses, holiday homes and huge boulders overlooking the bay. Everyone meets at the local hotel to swap stories, and a beach braai of lobster and fresh local fish is tradition, with the sunset over the ocean providing the perfect setting.Visit the Paternoster websiteOudtshoornThe home of the local ostrich industry and the annual Klein-Karoo National Arts Festival, Oudtshoorn lies in an arid but spectacular setting in the shadow of the Western Cape’s Swartberg Mountains.The mansions built by ostrich feather farmers of yesteryear are a must-see, as are the spectacular Cango caves, often a venue for choral performances. Enjoy ostrich dishes in local restaurants, and shop for ostrich leather products.Visit the Oudtshoorn Info websiteMatjiesfonteinToday a testament to Victorian splendour, this railway stop became a small town thanks to one man – James Logan. An official with the Cape Government Railways, he suffered from a chest complaint. A transfer to the Karoo proved so beneficial that he decided to stay, farm and acquire land there, amongst which was the area around the Matjiesfontein station.He realised locomotives travelling inland were thirsty for water – and so were their passengers. He pumped water from his farm bore holes to the station and while the locomotives tanked up, he served the passengers food and drink in his restaurant. The restaurant gave way to the majestic Lord Milner hotel he built in the elegant Victorian style. It is as fashionable today as it was way back then.Visit the Matjiesfontein websiteEASTERN CAPENieu BethesdaA Hollywood movie has even been made in this tiny Karoo hamlet to celebrate its most famous inhabitant – Helen Martins. An artist and recluse, she created fantasy creatures out of glass and cement and scandalised the town with her eccentric ways.Her home, known as the Owl House, is a museum where huge camel sculptures, wise men and owls stand testament to her vision and passion. It has become a place of pilgrimage for artists and travellers alike.The Ibis Gallery on the main road of Nieu Bethesda boasts contemporary South African art, while the local watering hole is home to some of the area’s more colourful inhabitants.Visit the Nieu Bethesda websiteVisit the Owl House website Owl House: recluse’s masterpiecePort St JohnsPort St Johns is a swashbuckling village of legend on the Pondo side of the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape. It is also one of the highlights on any international backpacker’s world itinerary because of its natural setting, frontier atmosphere and appeal to more adventurous younger travellers.From one of the most interesting airstrips in Africa, one can see the famed Gates of St Johns (Mounts Thesiger and Sullivan) on either side of the river. Three good beaches, excellent fishing and a general atmosphere of live and let live have made the coastal village a hotspot for young tourists looking for adventure on the wild side of Africa.Visit the Port St Johns websiteHippos and hippies at Port St JohnsMPUMALANGADullstroomThe trout-fishing capital of South Africa and only two hours from Johannesburg, Dullstroom offers city dwellers the perfect weekend getaway. Founded by Dutch settler Wolterus Dull 120 years ago, the town has beautiful scenery, great bird life, delightful decor and antique shops and lots of local colour.Don’t miss the pancake parlour in the middle of town or some of the more lively pubs and bars. There are one or two superb restaurants in the area and accommodation ranges from rustic to fabulous and five-star. And Dullstroom’s sweet shop is the finest in the country .Visit the Dullstroom Online websiteVisit the Dullstroom Reservations websiteVisit the Dullstroom Info websitePilgrims RestThe entire town of Pilgrims Rest has been declared a national monument. Established the 1880s after gold was found along the banks of the Pilgrims Creek River, the town is a living museum, giving visitors a glimpse of life in the early gold-rush days of South Africa.The graveyard is a must-see for its historic gravesites, such as the robber’s grave, and the buildings take one back to another era. The Royal Hotel, in particular, keeps the stately glory of yesteryear living alive even today. Not too far from Pilgrims lie some of the most spectacular scenery in the country.Visit the Pilgrims Rest websiteKaapschehoopKaapschehoop a haven for the last wild horses of South Africa that roam the town freely. Harem, a young artist, is the town’s most famous son after Richard Branson of Virgin Airlines’ fame discovered his work. A walk through a labyrinth of rocks the escarpment overlooking Swaziland. Many artists live here permanently, and there are a number of beautiful guest- houses in town, plus other accommodation to suit all pockets.Visit the Kaapschehoop websiteFREE STATEClarensClarens offers the visitor a relaxed but vibrant atmosphere. (Image: Priya Pitamber)Home to potters, actors, artists and a number of community-based art projects, this little town offers the visitor a relaxed but vibrant atmosphere. The road between Clarens and Fouriesburg is one of the most scenic in the country. Just beyond the town lies the Golden Gate National Park, which has incredible mountain outcrops, clear streams and wildlife. Clarens also boasts farm-stay accommodation, giving visitors an authentic farm experience – Free State style.“The Free State Landscape gladdens my heart, no matter what my mood,” Nelson Mandela said once. “When I am here I feel that nothing can shut me in and that my thoughts can roam as far as the horizons.”Visit the Clarens Tourism websiteVisit the Clarens Reservations websiteNORTH WESTGroot MaricoGroot Marico in North West of South Africa is known for its mampoer – a distilled and potent alcohol made from peaches – and its most famous citizen, author Herman Charles Bosman, who set many of his works in the district. The town hosts the annual Herman Charles Bosman literary weekend every October, with visitors from all over the country visiting the Marico to celebrate some of South Africa’s best loved tales.Visit the Marico Tourism websiteSource: South African TourismWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.last_img read more

Another Reese joins the OCJ/OAN team

Another Reese joins the OCJ/OAN team

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Jeff ReeseJeff Reese joined the Ohio’s Country Journal/Ohio Ag Net staff in July as the newest marketing specialist. He had been the grain originator and transportation manager at Legacy Farmers Co-op in Findlay. He graduated from The Ohio State University with a degree in agricultural communications in 2006.He grew up in Hancock County working on his family’s Christmas tree farm. He currently resides in Findlay and will be serving clients in that, and other, regions of the state.last_img

How Heat Moves Through Homes — Building Science Podcast

How Heat Moves Through Homes — Building Science Podcast

first_img GREEN PRODUCT GUIDE How to Retrofit Old Masonry BuildingsAir Barrier or Vapor Barrier? RELATED ARTICLES The Basics of Heat FlowAs construction methods and materials change, and energy gets more expensive, how and why we insulate our homes become more important. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS In our last episode, Dr. Joe Lstiburek talked about efflorescence and the serious damage that water and salt can do to masonry. This week, Dr. John Straube explains how the three forms of heat flow work, and debunks the claims of a few common insulating materials.Comfort is the Primary Purpose of BuildingsSo, I actually call this “thermal control, insulation, and thermal bridges,” because thermal bridges are important. Let’s go back again and say, “Why do I want to control the heat flow?” Well, there are a whole bunch of reasons, but we often forget that the No. 1 reason we want to insulate is for thermal comfort. So, we want to make sure that exterior walls, roofs and floor slabs — that the temperature of these components stays above 68° in the wintertime and below 78° in summertime.If the wall or roof or slab gets too far beyond those ranges, we feel discomfort regardless of what the thermostat says. Actually, a lot of interesting buildings that work well that don’t have a lot of insulation — say, the old five-wythes of masonry built in 1864 or something like that — they work not because they’re that well insulated if you put them into our value test; they work because they maintain the surface temperatures at a relatively high level in the winter and are relatively cool in the summer. Even though the air temperature may not be that well controlled, you feel comfortable in them. And so just maintaining comfort is the No. 1 reason why, when we moved to lightweight assemblies, we had to start adding insulation; it was just too darn cold. MULTIMEDIA Blown-in InsulationSpray Foam InsulationRigid Board InsulationStructural Insulated Panels What is heat?Heat is energy in the form of vibrating particlesThe faster the particles move, the farther they move apart — slow particles make solids, faster ones turn to liquids, and even faster ones become gases Can Foam Insulation Be Too Thick?‘Insulating’ Paint Merchants Dupe Gullible HomeownersComfort Comes With Green BuildingBeware of R-Value CrooksUnderstanding R-ValueInsulation OverviewInsulation ChoicesInsulating Roofs, Walls, and Floors So, to understand a little of this, we’re going to go through the three modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation. Those three modes of energy transport are acting all the time and in parallel; they don’t really interact that much. We have to look at each of the three to understand the total picture.First, we should understand the nature of heat. Heat is vibratory energy in molecules. At any temperature that we’re experiencing, the molecules are vibrating. If you put more heat into them, they vibrate faster. In fact, if I take a piece of stainless steel and I put so much heat into it that I get to about 2,000 degrees, it’ll actually vibrate so much that the whole thing falls apart into a liquid. And if I keep heating that up, it’ll boil and the molecules will fly off into a vapor.So, whatever the heat is, it’s vibratory molecules, and when we talk about conduction, we have hot and cold as one solid object, and the fast-vibrating hot molecules physically collide with the slower-moving cold molecules and transfer momentum. By transferring some of the speed from the hot to the cold, the hot gets colder, and the cold gets warmer; that’s how heat is transferred by conduction.Conduction requires contact and low R-valuesTo have this mechanism work, you need solid material so that the molecules are directly in contact. Even having a gap of an eighth of an inch, you stop conduction. You still have conduction through the air, but the two solids have stopped. Our most common experience with this is metallic materials. You have a frying pan — cast iron — you put your hand on it. If it’s been sitting in the fire too long, the heat will conduct up to the handle and it’ll be hot. What we do to stop that, of course, is we put a piece of wood around the handle of the frying pan because the wood is less conductive.Now, the way we measure the performance of conduction is something we call conductivity. And conductivity is a material property, like vapor permeability is a material property. The symbol is typically K, but in Japan and Germany, they use the Greek symbol lambda. We can figure out what the resistance is. By figuring for a specific thickness, you get a conductance, and from the conductance, you do an inverse and you get R-value. That measures resistance only.Unfortunately, if this is the science behind it, the R-values that we see installed on our Styrofoam SM or on fiberglass insulation, they actually also include convection and radiation (we haven’t talked about that yet). So, the R-values we use for insulation products aren’t really scientifically based on conduction.If air or water move freely you get convectionConvection is the movement of the hot molecule here to over here by physically grabbing the whole bundle of molecules and dragging it across. So, it’s a mass flow movement of grabbing the hot fluids, which could be water from the boiler, and transporting it to the second-floor bedroom; or it could be a hot furnace, and transporting it to the kitchen — but just physically moving the fluid. That’s convection.Convection, actually, is more important in our building assemblies than most people realize — and it’s because our building assemblies have gaps and openings in them and we use materials that allow air to flow through them. And so when we look at something like a fiberglass batt that’s been installed from the inside, as I push this friction-fit batt, these fibers get pulled backward, right? They have to because of friction. Then that causes the fibers to stick out here, so the installer tucks the batt in like that. That’s your standard thing. As the installer tucks the corner in, it compresses the batt insulation and often causes a wrinkle at the middle.How do we know this? Well, we get people who install fiberglass batts with Plexiglas sheathing and we look at the far side and can see all these little gaps and openings form. So, this is what it really looks like.Batt insulation rarely works well in the real worldThe question is: What happens at these gaps? Well, this will be filled with hot air because it’s on the warm side; this will be filled with cold air because it’s on the cold side. Hot air rises and cold air falls, and so we have these two micro-ducts on either side of the fiberglass insulation. As hot air rises, it goes through the insulation and comes down and goes around like that. And that transports energy.How much energy? Well, it depends on how big those gaps are. Twenty, 30, 40 percent of the total heat flow across the wall can be by this mechanism. Which means your R-20 batt will drop to R-12 or R-10.What’s neat about this mechanism is that as the temperature difference across the wall increases, there’s a greater and greater proportion of heat flow transported by this mechanism. As you need the R-value more and more, it actually drops. Which is why when they test R-value in labs, they never test it like this because then they wouldn’t get R-19. So, what they do is they turn it on its side and they make darn sure there are absolutely no gaps — no studs, no gaps. They also make sure that the temperature difference across the batt is never more than about 30 degrees. That way, all this shit can’t happen and they can just get good R-value numbers.Now, if you take an R-19 batt and have the audacity to install it in a vertical application, your R-value goes down. If you then have little gaps — like batts are actually installed — well, then your R-value goes down. The bigger the temperature difference, the more the hit is; it’s a nonlinear relationship.But it gets worse. Not only do we have the gaps and openings around it, we have the studs in between that, and of course the heat flows more easily through the studs than it does through the batt. So, who cares about the R-19 of the batt when the heat’s actually flowing through the triple studs around the window? And the steel studs?With wood studs, you can argue that if you were a perfect tradesperson, you would install with no gaps at all. If you were given the three minutes per batt to install — most installers of course use at least three minutes to install a batt — you could probably make this work. But if you put it in a steel stud, the lips on the steel stud guarantee that no matter what level of trade quality is provided, you will have gaps around that steel stud. And those gaps will be the size of that lip — both 3/8 of an inch by an inch and a half wide. So, you’re guaranteed to lose between 30 and 40 percent of your R-value just right there. Isn’t that cool? Or hot, depending on the weather really.This same loopy stuff can go on in wintertime around insulation installed in attics, because there’s nothing stopping the air from looping around up here, and if there are any voids around the rafters or joists, you get loops going on. In some cases, when the temperature drops to 10 degrees, some types of blown-in fiberglass (which mostly aren’t sold anymore) at 20-degree outside temperatures were getting half the rated R-value, and at 0 degrees, which does happen on the coldest day of the year in northern Minnesota, they were getting something like 30% of the minimum rated R-value.So, you’d blow in R-40 and you’d get R-15 on the coldest day of the year, which of course is precisely when you need the most R-value. By the way, the way they fixed that these days is you go in and blow 4 to 8 inches of cellulose over top to provide a kind of air-impermeable cap on top of the fiberglass. So, if you do have problems, it’s often quite convenient and inexpensive just to blow a foot of cellulose on top and you’ll get a major improvement in performance.Radiation likes empty spaceThen we have radiation. These vibrating molecules create waves in space-time, which we call electromagnetic radiation. At the temperatures that we’re talking about, they’re infrared radiation.If you were to make these molecules move fast enough, they would eventually glow red-hot; you’d be able to see them. They’d go from infrared to actual red. And if you keep heating them up, they’d get white hot. And if you kept heating them up, they would actually start giving off ultraviolet radiation — and then a nuclear explosion, you’d get gamma radiation, they’re so hot.But most of our building applications aren’t worried about that. We’re worried about infrared radiation. That’s what infrared cameras look for: They look for the emission of radiation given off by the temperatures that the molecules have. Now, for radiation to be important, it really likes to transfer through — not solids; it likes to go through voids. It doesn’t even like to have gases in the way. That’s why the sun is able to transfer its energy from 93 million miles away to the planet Earth; because basically there’s nothing between us and the sun other than vacuum, except for the last 30 miles or so. Not even — it’s really only about 5 miles of air between us and the sun. So, radiation is quite effective. About 90% of the radiation given off by the sun hits the planet’s surface. We’re trying to change that, of course.Now, what you need is a gap. If you have aluminum foil, which does not emit radiation very well, it does not change the heat flow across the building assembly unless there’s an air gap. So, you need a gap.The Thermos bottles — they’re shiny glass on the inside, and that’s so there’s an air gap, and the shininess deals with the radiation. If you filled that void up with foam, the R-value would go down, not up, because you would eliminate any radiation benefit of the shiny metal. So, you have to have the gap; a slightly bigger gap would be good.Now, within the pores of insulation like fiberglass or rockwool, there are so many voids that radiation actually does play a role in jumping from fiber to fiber inside that product. And in a fiberglass batt, about 40% of the heat transfer at common temperatures is due to radiation. Foam, it’s about 30%. Now, the reason that matters is that as the temperature changes, the contribution of radiation changes.We’ve all probably been around a fire on a cold night; watch the campfire burn and you can feel the heat radiating to your face. That’s because it’s hot. It really makes a difference whether that fire is hot or cold whether you feel the radiation on your face or not. As you get down to building-related temperatures — 100 degrees, 50 degrees — radiation gets less and less important.But at high temperatures, radiation is important and it’s a major transfer mechanism; at low temperatures, it doesn’t play as big a role. So, radiant barriers are very good for high temperatures — say, the roof in a sunny climate. They’re less important for cold conditions — say, the underside of a crawlspace; they don’t play as big a role. But in every case they need an air gap.NASA’s radiant barriers are useless when you pour concrete over themWith radiant floor heat, it is actually kind of misnamed. There is radiation transfer, but actually most of it is by convection. So, convection matters, radiation matters, but more importantly, when I think of radiant floor heat [I think of] snake-oil salesmen who sell these radiant barriers underneath radiant slabs. Radiant-radiant, right? They should go together; they’re both named radiant.But of course, when you pour concrete on the aluminum foil, there’s no air gap, is there? So, there’s no R-value benefit. The R-value of a piece of aluminum foil underneath a chunk of concrete on top of soil is around 0 — somewhere between 0 and bupkus. However, they don’t test them that way, do they? They test them in horizontal apparatuses with an air gap above and an air gap below with ridiculous temperature differences across them. And then they get, like, R-8. But it’s hard to suspend that slab 4 inches above the radiant foil in most of my radiant slab designs.So, what they’ve done to address that is they put the little bubble wraps — the radiant foil bubble wraps, and so on — and they have, well, tiny bubbles (Don Ho sang about that until his recent death). These tiny bubbles in between the aluminum foil do help the R-value, and you can get as much as R-1 on some of the bigger bubble products.Now, the cost of that R-1 bubble wrap per R is about 3 times the cost of buying extruded polystyrene foam, but you can market this stuff as “space age.” Well, NASA uses it. OK, let’s think about this. I’m in outer space. There is no air. So, what are the heat transfer mechanisms? Well, there’s no convection; there’s no air. All I’ve got is conduction and radiation — so, if I’m not touching it, of course there’s only radiation. NASA uses radiant barriers because radiation is the only way they can transfer heat from them to other spatial bodies. It’s the only mechanism that works. ‘But as long as you’re building your buildings on Earth, in an air-filled environment, there are other mechanisms that are actually more important. But the NASA technology and the “ceramic balls” — it’s all just bullshit.But somehow they manage to sell this stuff by playing on people’s ignorance. They’re not sure about how all this works. Why insulate?For thermal comfortTo save energyTo stop condensation and the potential for mold and rotTo reduce the size, cost, and complexity of our HVAC systemsIn order to slow the flow of heat through our foundations, walls, windows, and roofs, it helps to understand what heat is and how it moves. Roof/Wall ConnectionsWall/Floor ConnectionsFoundation/Floor ConnectionsWindow Details How can it move?Conduction: solid things touching other solid things — drywall touching wall studs touching plywoodConvection: fluids, like water or air, moving around in an open space, like a pipe, wall cavity, or roomRadiation: heat in the form of electromagnetic energy moves through open space — the less stuff in the way, the better Windows are tough to keep warmNow, we still have that problem in our windows and our doors. So sliding patio doors — large areas of R-2 — well, they’re not very comfortable either in hot weather or in cold weather to sit next to. They just don’t meet the test of providing sufficient thermal control for comfort. We’re not even talking energy. So, they fail the first test.We also want to control surface and interstitial condensation. Now that we are quite clear on “condensation occurs on cold surfaces,” we can also now look at the psychometric chart and say, “So, how cold is cold?” Well, it depends on interior relative humidity, right? And if we keep the relative humidity in, say, the 30% range in cold weather, that means the surface temperatures have to be above 35 or 40 degrees. If you’re in the 40% relative humidity range, you now have to keep interior surface temperatures above 45 or so degrees.And again, where do we get that surface condensation? On our windows, because our windows are the least insulated part of the building enclosure. So, we see that first. But we also can get it in corners and at thermal bridges.R-5 meets most comfort and condensation concernsThe next thing is to save energy. But really, our struggle first and foremost in terms of stopping the biggest problems is: Make sure we get comfort; make sure we don’t get surface condensation. That’s what we need to have minimum levels of insulation for. And actually, R-5 will solve those two problems by and large in most climates. R-10, and you’re a slam dunk — even though we see codes with R-40s and R-20s and whatever. If we could just get R-5 everywhere, we could solve 95% of comfort and condensation problems — and R-10, we’d solve 99% of them.But we can’t do that because we can’t even achieve R-5 and R-10. Saving energy, reducing operating costs and pollution is what the building codes are worrying about when they specify R-values — and we’ll find out how useless that is as an approach to saving energy as we work through this presentation.Energy-efficient buildings need smaller heatersThen we have to save distribution and heating plant costs. Most people seem to forget that if I actually do a good job of controlling heat flow across my building enclosure, it means I can reduce the size of my air conditioner, the size of my furnace, the size of the ducts, the size of diffusers, the size of the fans, the size of the fan motors, the size of the filter, the size of the space it requires to put all of that into a building.So, we see a lot of life-cycle cost analysis of insulation and air tightness and such, and almost never do they include the escalating cost of energy — and they never include the rather significant savings that can be achieved in terms of downsizing your air conditioning plant, or your furnace or your ductwork. When you start reducing the size of ductwork or even eliminating it almost entirely, well, that opens up architectural opportunities: “Oh, you mean I don’t have to put in a suspended ceiling here? You mean I don’t actually have to take the duct to the outside wall?” Well, of course you don’t. If you insulate your walls sufficiently and provide good windows, you don’t have to provide a duct to the outside wall; you can provide the heat at the inside wall and simply blow the air over there. If you have a piece of junk wall and a piece of junk window, yeah, not only do you have to put the vent right below the window, you’re still going to be uncomfortable. But the duct savings are significant; it’s just that they’re not usually reaped.Meeting codes doesn’t guarantee good performanceNow, decreasing load diversity is something that matters to commercial buildings; less so to residential. Load diversity is the term used to describe the fact that at one part of the building you may have a significant cooling or heating load, while at the other part of the building you have the opposite. It’s very common in commercial buildings, for example, to have the east side require cooling at 10 o’clock in the morning. The sun is shining through the east windows, everyone has moved into the office, it’s all heated up; whereas on the west side, they’re still running the boiler to keep it hot.The only way that situation could actually occur is if you have a very bad building enclosure. And yet it’s pretty common; it’s a pretty common scenario. And that’s not just energy wasting; that’s annoying for the controls people have to work out. It’s annoying that you have to have systems that can do cooling and heating at the same time — what a pain in the butt. And yet by building bad building enclosures, we have managed to create that as almost a standard in office buildings and schools, etc., in our part of the world.And of course there’s the “I don’t wanna go to jail reason” to meet codes and specifications — which I always put at the bottom of the list. But actually, most designers that we work with, they put that as No. 1: “I don’t care if it matters; we’re just going to meet the codes.” And building code officials who say, “Look, just put R-20 in there. I don’t care if it actually does anything; jut put it in there to meet the code.”Heat and how it moveslast_img read more