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Guyana, France eye student exchange programmes

Guyana, France eye student exchange programmes

first_imgWith the aim of strengthening bilateral relations through the education sector, Guyana and France have discussed the possibility of exchange programmes for students and teachers between the two countries in addition to an increased offering of the French language in local schools.These proposals were among a number of matters addressed during dialogue between Education Minister Nicolette Henry and French Ambassador to Guyana, Antoine Joly on Monday.“We could have Guyanese teachers go to France to teach while improving their knowledge of French, especially since Haiti is a member of Caricom,” Ambassador Joly was quoted as saying.Education Minister Nicolette Henry and French Ambassador to Guyana, Antoine JolyHe added, “It is my hope and plans to have Guyana send assistant teachers to teach English and at the same time, improve their interest in French through Government relations.”In a statement issued by the Education Ministry, it was observed that there were also discussions on improving relations with the French Guiana University and the University of Guyana.According to the release, Minister Henry, in response, dubbed the proposals as “good and useful opportunities to build capacity to teach and learn French”.She was quoted as saying that the Ministry “is interested in the exchange programmes for six months for teachers and will work on all other possibilities for education development of teachers and students towards a more balanced society”.“France is also looking for opportunities to improve the way English is being taught in their school system and the Ambassador was adamant that Guyana is as good an English-speaking territory as any other to field teachers to teach English,” the statement added.Minister Henry added that she would have the Chief Education Officer, Marcel Hutson “work as the point of contact for the Ministry of Education to work out the modalities”.Ambassador Joly said that President of the French Guiana Assembly, Rodolphe Alexander said he would work with French Guiana authorities to make bilateral relationships possible for an improved education sector among others. He also signalled interest in an interface with the Guyana Government via an official visit later this year. Minister Henry has expressed pleasure at the proposed visit and stands ready to interface with Alexander to ensure that discussions are had on a commonly agreed path for education development.Minister Henry also spoke of the ongoing education efforts for the promotion of the greening of the Guianas on the Guiana Shield through student exchanges.last_img read more

Hoffenheim boss Nagelsmann plots to undo idol Guardiola

Hoffenheim boss Nagelsmann plots to undo idol Guardiola

first_img0Shares0000Julian Nagelsmann, 31, has nurtured a reputation as a rising star after saving Hoffenheim from Bundesliga relegation in 2016, despite having been appointed head coach in February that year at the age of just 29. © AFP / Daniel ROLANDSINSHEIM, Germany, Oct 1 – Hoffenheim coach Julian Nagelsmann is plotting to outsmart his idol Pep Guardiola when Manchester City attempt to get their Champions League campaign back on track by winning in Germany on Tuesday.At 31, Nagelsmann is the youngest coach in Champions League history, and admits to being a a keen student of Guardiola’s methods. Now he hopes to thwart the Spanish master tactician in Hoffenheim’s first home Champions League match in the club’s history.“I don’t know if it it’s always an advantage to know Pep Guardiola, because then you know that he is doing so much the right way or the best way,” said Nagelsmann.“It’s not very easy to say exactly how he will set his team.“He has different ways to play against different opponents.“You can see a lot of similarities in his style, but also see a lot of differences.“As I said, it’s not easy to approach his style of play, but I have a few ideas.”In Sinsheim, City will be aiming to bounce back from their shock 2-1 loss at home to Lyon in their first Group F game. Hoffenheim drew their opener 2-2 at Shakhtar Donetsk.City beat Brighton 2-0 at home at the weekend to go top of the Premier League, but Hoffenheim’s form is far shakier as they suffered their third defeat in six Bundesliga games on Saturday, losing 2-1 at home to RB Leipzig, who the ambitious Nagelsmann will coach next season.– In at the deep end –This is the first time Nagelsmann will go head-to-head with Guardiola, who coached Bayern Munich to three consecutive Bundesliga titles from 2013 to 2016 before joining City.There are elements to Nagelsmann’s aggressive style with Hoffenheim which echo that of Guardiola, whose City team also like to press their opponents in their own half.Neither is afraid to take risks in selection or switch tactics mid-match.Nagelsmann became a rising star in German football when he was thrust from coaching Hoffenheim’s Under-19 team to being tasked with maintaining the senior team in the Bundesliga.He was just 29 in February 2016 when he took charge of Hoffenheim — a Bundesliga record for a permanent head coach — with the team second from bottom.He only gained his coaching licence a month after his appointment, but the precarious situation did not faze the self-confident Nagelsmann.The former defender forged a strong team spirit, turning Hoffenheim from relegation contenders to Champions League qualifiers within two seasons.Despite his youth, Nagelsmann is street-wise with his answers in press conferences and carefully cultivates his public image.– Attention to eye-brows –Just as current Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp made no secret of his hair transplant while in charge of Borussia Dortmund, Nagelsmann was equally open about his own cosmetic surgery.He admitted having permanent make-up on his eye-brows when he sported a new look for the 3-1 defeat at Bayern Munich on the first day of the season in August.Hoffenheim head coach Julian Nagelsmann is relishing being in charge for the first home Champions League match in the club’s history against Pep Guardiola’s Manchester City on Tuesday. © AFP / Daniel ROLAND“Women have always been able to wear make-up, I have tried it and I hope it will work for me,” he declared.Such self-confidence is typical of Nagelsmann whose playing career was wrecked by a knee injury in 2008 while playing for Augsburg’s reserves, aged just 20.Current Paris Saint Germain boss Thomas Tuchel, who was coaching one of Augsburg’s junior teams at the time, spotted his potential and had Nagelsmann scout future opponents.He joined Hoffenheim in 2010 as assistant coach of the club’s Under-17 team, later coaching the Under-19 team to the 2014 national age-group title when he was less than 10 years older than his players.Nagelsmann was born in the Bavarian town of Landsberg am Lech and before it was announced this June that he will coach RB Leipzig from 2019/20, the German media saw him as a Bayern Munich coach in waiting.He fanned the flames last year by revealing he has had a house built in Munich, where his wife’s parents live, and stated “FC Bayern is a big part of my dream”.For now, the dream is getting one over on Guardiola.0Shares0000(Visited 2 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

FOR SALE! AN IN-SPIRE-D PIECE OF ST EUNAN’S CATHEDRAL!

FOR SALE! AN IN-SPIRE-D PIECE OF ST EUNAN’S CATHEDRAL!

first_imgPARISHONERS in Co Donegal can get their hands on a little piece of Church history – literally – from this week.Pieces of the spire from St Eunan’s Cathedral in Letterkenny go on sale this Tuesday…priced at €17.50 each.The small pieces of stone were removed from the spire during recent restoration work by Letterkenny sculptor Redmond Herrity. He has hand-crafted each piece and marked it with a cross.The rare gift items will be for sale at the parochial house and at the Veritas shop on Lower Main Street in Letterkenny.Money from the sale will go towards paying the bills for the recent renovation of the Cathedral.Be in-SPIRE-d! © 2011 donegaldaily.com, All Rights ReservedFollow us on www.twitter.com/donegaldailyFollow us on www.facebook.com/donegaldailySell anything on www.donegaldailyclassifieds.comFOR SALE! AN IN-SPIRE-D PIECE OF ST EUNAN’S CATHEDRAL! was last modified: November 6th, 2011 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Spire historyst eunan’s cathedral letterkennylast_img read more

DONEGAL COULD WAIT SIX YEARS FOR BROADBAND – PRINGLE

DONEGAL COULD WAIT SIX YEARS FOR BROADBAND – PRINGLE

first_imgParts of Donegal may not receive high-speed broadband until 2021.In a reply to a question submitted to the Minister by Thomas Pringle TD, it was revealed that some parts of the county not get access to high-speed broadband for up to six years.‘Nearly 50% of the North West Region could be left without high speed broadband for another 6 years. There are 83,935 premises remaining in the North West Region including Donegal, Sligo and Leitrim, that will be targeted for state intervention. “But that won’t begin until late 2016 which will be drawn out over 3-5 years meaning some areas won’t see high speed broadband until 2021!’ explains Pringle.He added that this is a big problem for rural communities, small businesses and for job creation in rural areas.“So I am calling on the Minister to ensure that marginalised areas like Donegal are the first to benefit from the roll-out. Too often we have seen Donegal tagged out at the end of national roll-outs and this trend should be reversed with the Rural Broadband Scheme’ concludes Pringle.DONEGAL COULD WAIT SIX YEARS FOR BROADBAND – PRINGLE was last modified: June 18th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:broadbandDeputy Thomas Pringledonegallast_img read more

Ssenkatuka set for KCCA FC return

Ssenkatuka set for KCCA FC return

first_img Tags: Aggrey Ashababright starsKCCA FCNelson Ssenkatukapatrick kadduprolinetop Ssenkatuka scored 17 League goals last season. (PHOTO/File)KAMPALA – Bright Stars captain Nelson Ssenkatuka may be on his way back to KCCA FC.According to reliable sources, the 21-year-old is set to hold crunch talks with the Kasasiro’s chairperson, Aggrey Ashaba this weekend as the two parties look to strike an agreement.If the move materializes, Ssenkatuka will be returning to Lugogo for the second time in his career.His first came in 2015 when he joined KCCA FC upon his return to Uganda from the United Kingdom.He featured for the Kasasiro in the 2015/16 season, scoring just four goals in 16 games.Ssenkatuka then moved to Proline where his career took off, scoring 11 goals in the 2016/17 season.He was then acquired by Bright Stars and after the departure of Bernard Muwanga, Ssenkatuka was named captain of the Matugga based side.At Bright Stars, he has so far scored 34 goals in 60 League matches including 17 in the 2018/19 StarTimes Uganda Premier league season.The move back to KCCA FC makes sense especially after it emerged that the current league title holders are poised to lose their primary striker Patrick Kaddu.Kaddu is understood to be finalizing a move to a unnamed Moroccan Premier League side.KCCA FC have already made three major signings in the offseason, securing the services of John Revita, Erisa Ssekisambu and Simon Sserunkuma.Comments last_img read more

Castle Grove Wedding Fayre to offer exclusivity and care for a perfect day

Castle Grove Wedding Fayre to offer exclusivity and care for a perfect day

first_imgClear your diaries and visit us this Sunday for a special event at Castle Grove House, outside Letterkenny.The Castle Grove Wedding Fayre takes place this Sunday October 1 at 2pm, offering couples the chance to see how they can personalise their wedding celebrations with the values of exclusivity and care that are found at the hotel.Exclusivity Real exclusivity and dedicated care are things we pride ourselves on being able to offer each and every couple who host their wedding at Castle Grove. Exclusivity means being able to offer you and your wedding guests the full and exclusive use of the elegant Georgian house and its beautiful grounds for your entire wedding day. CareWhen we talk about ‘care’ we mean a team of dedicated and hardworking staff all on hand to guide you through each and every step of your planning process. We invest ourselves completely in creating your perfect day. Meet the Wedding ExpertsThis Sunday October 1 offers you the perfect opportunity to see exclusivity and care in action. As well as a full range of amazing exhibitors, you’ll have a unique opportunity to meet the staff and ask any questions you may have in a relaxed setting. For larger parties, we will be on hand to tell you about our wonderful marquee weddings. These celebrations take place in the wake of sweeping countryside and Lough Swilly views and will leave your guests in awe.Weddings at Castle GrovePersonalise your DayUnderstanding how important it is to make your wedding as individual as you are, we’re full of exciting ideas on how to make your dreams a reality.  This Sunday, there’ll be examples of personalised wedding favours, bespoke cocktail bars as well as gourmet evening bites all of which are sure to make you stand out from the crowd.Weddings at Castle GroveWeddings at Castle GroveSunday OutWith so many wedding fayres happening in the locality, this Sunday is sure to see many an eager bride on the hunt for her dream venue. You’ll be glad you added Castle Grove to your list for a fun and wedding filled day out! Contact Irene for any wedding queries. Exclusive offers on the dayFayre starts at 2pm and entry is complimentary. Contact Irene on 0749151118, DM on Facebook and Instagram or Email Irene.sweeney@castlegrove.comCastle Grove Wedding Fayre to offer exclusivity and care for a perfect day was last modified: September 29th, 2017 by Castle GroveShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:bridalcastle grove country house hoteleventsweddingslast_img read more

116 Geocaches an Hour and Aliens

116 Geocaches an Hour and Aliens

first_img SharePrint RelatedKlaatu Barada Nikto! — Aliens Among Us (GC1N0B9) — Geocache of the WeekMarch 12, 2014In “Community”Extraterrestrial Geocachers? — Head Alien Series (GC253ZN) — Geocache of the WeekNovember 6, 2013In “Community”Inside Geocaching HQ Podcast Transcript (Episode 19): Annie LoveJanuary 30, 2019In “Community” Annie Love on the E.T. Highway[Editor’s Note: There’s an alien at the end of this blog post]By Annie Love –Imagine: The midnight darkness of the desert is lit only by a pale moon. You’re driving down a dirt road in the middle of nowhere Nevada.  You see the wink of a meteorite falling to Earth.  It’s slower than any you’ve seen before, it’s greenish in hue. The trajectory of the fast moving light shows it landing in the area you’ve been told doesn’t officially exist even though you pretty much know for a fact it does. You feel validated when your friends agrees with you that this might not be a meteorite.  In fact, it very well could be aliens. Yes. Aliens.This would seem weird under normal circumstances.  This doesn’t fall under normal circumstances though. This is geocaching.  Specifically, this is the ET Highway.Annie Love with Moun10Bike, Princess Trouble, dsvaughn, Joe of JoenSueBordering the place that doesn’t exist (Area 51), this geocaching power trail is not for everyone.  It’s the ultimate in power caching. Film canister after film canister at 6,000-7,000 feet in elevation, this trail leads you through some spectacular country.  Originally 2000 geocaches, recently expanded to 2400, this is one of the largest power trails on Earth.  Traveling through this part of the world makes you feel like it’s impossible not to ‘believe.’Knowing that Geocoinfest 2013 was going to be in Las Vegas, I immediately thought ‘I should do the ET Highway.’  Over the nine years I’ve been geocaching, I’ve only found just under 1200 caches. It’s definitely not about the numbers to me.  For me, it’s the experience I have geocaching.  That’s what appealed to me about doing the ET Highway.Before I could make my own plans, I received an email from Princess Trouble (one of the hosts of Geocoinfest).  After a few more emails, a team was formed.  My colleague Moun10Bike, Princess Trouble, dsvaughn, Joe of JoenSue and I had plans to leave bright and early after Geocoinfest.Blazing through rugged Nevada backcountry with our minivan and Jeep, we found the 2400 caches over four days. In our quickest hour of geocaching, we found 116 geocaches. Being in the company of cows, jack rabbits, coyotes, wild horses and fun geocachers made for a truly amazing adventure.Some tips for folks thinking of doing the ET Highway:-Start your planning by checking out the ET Highway owner’s information page:  http://etgeocaching.com/-Plan to bring at least 50 film canisters with logs (for cache maintenance along the way)-We had two stamps with us and these were both nearly dead by the end, so three might be best-Figure out a plan in advance for getting gas or hauling gas with you so you don’t get stranded-Cell phones don’t work on most of the trail, so be prepared with plenty of food, water, flashlights, clothing layers and make sure you have a spare tire in your car-Allow for extra time to find the other really interesting geocaches, visit the Little A ‘Le’ Inn, and check out the ghost town of Belmont along the way Geocache Finds on the E.T. HighwayGroup ShotView of the E.T. HighwayAn Alien “selfie” Share with your Friends:Morelast_img read more

Sambhaji Brigade to stage a demonstration outside PMC

Sambhaji Brigade to stage a demonstration outside PMC

first_imgPune: The Sambhaji Brigade, a pro-Maratha outfit, has demanded the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) to immediately install a statue of Maratha warrior King Sambhaji (son of Shivaji) in place of a bust of eminent Marathi playwright Ram Ganesh Gadkari in Sambhaji Park.Santosh Shinde, a member of the Brigade, said the outfit would stage “a massive demonstration” outside the PMC building on May 4, in view of the civic administration’s “tardy response” to the outfit’s demands, and “more than 5,000 activists” are expected to join the outfit in the demonstration.“We submitted a detailed list of our demands and grievances to the new Pune mayor, Mukta Tilak, a fortnight ago. She assured us that she would discuss the matter with leaders from all political parties in the House and take a decision. However, no concrete action has been taken,” said Mr. Shinde, speaking to The Hindu.In January this year, R.G. Gadkari’s bust, a fixture in the Sambhaji Park since its installation in 1962, was vandalised by four activists of the Brigade, on grounds that the early 20th century playwright had allegedly ‘defamed’ King Sambhaji by portraying him as a compulsive alcoholic and a womaniser in his unfinished play Raj Sanyas. The activists had thrown Gadkari’s bust in the Mula river after uprooting it from the park.The bust was later retrieved from the river, but the PMC has refrained from re-installing it owing to pressure on the Brigade’s part.The outfit defended their act by claiming that a bust of the playwright “should have no place in a park named after Sambhaji.”The controversial act has since led to a bout of statue politics with members of the Brahman Mahasangh, backed by a city-based BJP legislator, installing a photo frame of Gadkari in place of his uprooted bust. Both, the Brigade, and political parties like the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Shiv Sena, have traded barbs on the matter, with each accusing the other of dividing society along caste lines by pitting the Maratha and the Brahmin sections against each other.Mr. Shinde said the outfit has urged the PMC to take up the issue with Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis in a bid to bring the matter to a speedy resolution. “We will also be submitting a resolution to Pune Guardian Minister and BJP leader Girish Bapat on the issue,” he said.May 14 will witness the 360th birth anniversary of Sambhaji. “The purpose of our demonstration on May 4 is to ensure that the PMC and the State government takes serious notice of our long-pending demand. We have no objection if Gadkari’s bust is re-installed in the neighbouring Bal Gandharva or shifted to any other place,” Mr. Shinde said.last_img read more

Giriraj to be shifted from Nawada to Begusarai?

Giriraj to be shifted from Nawada to Begusarai?

first_imgUnion Minister Giriraj Singh’s absence from the NDA’s Sankalp (resolution) rally addressed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Patna on March 3 has fuelled speculation that all was not well with him in the party. Mr. Singh’s loyalty to PM Modi has also been questioned by his silence over Opposition parties attacking the Central government on the Balakot issue.It was Giriraj Singh, Union Minister of State (Independent) for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, who had said that those who would not attend the March 3 rally be called “anti-national and supporter of Pakistan”. But, he himself skipped the rally. “It was Giriraj Singh who had laid down the yardstick that those not attending the rally would be deemed anti-national. Hence, he is himself a big traitor. For where is he applying VISA for?” Madhepura MP and Jan Adhikar party leader Rajesh Ranjan alias Pappu Yadav had tweeted. However, Mr. Singh, who comes from the upper caste Bhumihar community, later tweeted saying he was “unwell”.“Deliberately” avoided But political analysts and sources in the BJP told The Hindu that Mr. Singh “deliberately” skipped the rally as he might have got the hint that the party may not field him again from the Nawada Lok Sabha constituency. “Giriraj Singh may be asked to contest from the Begusarai seat,” said a senior State BJP leader. Begusarai is also an upper caste Bhumihar-dominated constituency from where the Mahagathbandhan (Grand Alliance) is likely to field former JNU president and CPI leader Kanhaiya Kumar. “Under the seat-sharing arrangement, the Nawada seat may go to the Lok Janshakti Party, since the LJP has been asked to vacate its sitting Munger seat for JD(U) candidate Rajiv Ranjan Singh alias Lallan Singh. The LJP will stake claim to the Nawada seat,” said a senior BJP leader. State LJP president Pashupati Kumar Paras too has admitted that the party would ask for the Nawada seat if it was denied the Munger seat.last_img read more

Stone-age Italians defleshed their dead

Stone-age Italians defleshed their dead

first_img The light cut marks evident on this fibula shaft show that little effort was required to remove the muscle tissue. About 7000 years ago in Italy, early farmers practiced an unusual burial ritual known as “defleshing.” When people died, villagers stripped their bones bare, pulled them apart, and mingled them with animal remains in a nearby cave. The practice was meant to separate the dead from the living, researchers say, writing in the latest issue of the journal Antiquity.“[Defleshing] is something which occurs in burial rites around the world but hasn’t been known for prehistoric Europe yet,” says John Robb, an archaeologist at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom and leader of the research project. Robb and his team examined the scattered bones of at least 22 Neolithic humans—many children—who died between 7200 and 7500 years ago. Their remains were buried in Scaloria Cave, a stalactite-filled grotto in the Tavoliere region of southeastern Italy, where Robb says that they provide the “first well-documented case for early farmers in Europe of people trying to actively deflesh the dead.”The cave—sealed off until its discovery in 1931—was uniquely able to preserve the human remains, which were mixed randomly with animal bones, broken pottery, and stone tools. This level of preservation is unusual: “Neolithic assemblages are often very challenging to interpret, as they are commonly broken, mixed up, and poorly preserved,” says Martin Smith, a biological anthropologist at Bournemouth University in the United Kingdom, who was not involved in the research.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Neolithic communities typically buried their dead beneath or beside their homes or on the outskirts of settlements. But in this case, farmers from villages as far as 15 to 20 kilometers away scattered the defleshed bones of their dead in the upper chamber of Scaloria Cave. But why did they do it, and what does this tell us about how they viewed life and death?To answer these questions, Robb’s team performed detailed analyses of the skeletal remains, first excavated in 1978 and now at the University of Cambridge on loan from the Archeological National Museum in Manfredonia, and their context. The results showed that few whole skeletons were present in the cave—only select bones had been interred. Some of the bones had light cut marks, suggesting that only residual muscle tissue needed to be removed by the time of defleshing. That meant the remains were likely deposited as much as a year after death. University of Cambridge center_img Given the evidence, Robb and his team theorize that the defleshing process was part of a long, multistage burial. It isn’t known what happened to the bodies in the early stages of these rites, though the lack of animal damage on the bones suggests that they weren’t exposed to the elements, meaning that they were either sealed away or buried deep in the ground. What is clear is that the rites ended up to a year later, when select bones were cleaned of their remaining flesh and placed in the cave. This likely marked the end of the mourning process—the deceased’s social significance among the community of loved ones now severed by this final transformation into cleaned bones. Relatives were then free to place the remains among other discarded items, animal bones, and broken vessels, perhaps as a symbolic gesture, showing that the transition from life to death was now complete.Robb contrasts that process with present-day mourning rituals: “Death is a cultural taboo for us. People in our culture tend to shun death and try to have brief, once-and-for-all interactions with the dead. But in many ancient cultures, people had prolonged interaction with the dead, either from long, multistage burial rituals such as this one, or because the dead remained present as ancestors, powerful relics, spirits, or potent memories.”But what was the significance of the cave? Robb and his team further hypothesize that due to the similarity in appearance, bones might have been regarded as equivalent to stalactites. Indeed, noticing the connection between water dripping from the cave ceiling and stalactite formation, the Neolithic Italians had placed vessels beneath the falling liquid to collect it; as the substance that created “stone bones,” it likely had a spiritual power. It’s thus possible, the team says, that the cleaning process and deposition in the cave was a way for the living to return the bones to their stonelike origins, both in appearance and location, completing a cycle of incarnation.The team’s comparison between long bones and stalactites is “extremely suggestive,” says Mark Pearce, an archaeologist at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom, who was not involved in the study. “We know that caves have a great ritual importance in Italian prehistory, and specifically the water that drips from stalactites.” Pearce adds: “The Scaloria Cave, with its difficult-to-access lower cave, was clearly a special place for the people of the Tavoliere, and we may imagine that it was thus a suitable place for final death rituals.””It may be that they regarded life as originating from forces or substances underground,” Smith says, “or they may have believed subterranean places to be where the soul traveled to after death. Either way, it gives a level of insight into Neolithic beliefs that we wouldn’t normally have access to.”last_img read more